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澳门微尼斯人娱乐有邻如此,唱歌有益胎教

原标题:双语||乾隆皇帝给英国国王乔治三世的信(中英文)

Prime Minister's Commons statement on triggering Article 50

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 1

~1~ Merovingian dynasty

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 2希拉里给凯特讲育儿经:唱歌有益胎教

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 3

近日,英国首相特雷莎·梅签署历史性信函,启动里斯本条约第50条(Article 50),正式启动“脱欧”程序。梅姨签名为证:

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 4

After the fall of Roman Empire, in 486, Clovis I led his Franks into Paris and established his Frankish kingdom - Merovingian dynasty. His four sons divided the kingdom. By the time of Muslim invasion, the kings has very little power. The mayors of palaces are the ones in power.

据外媒报道,身怀六甲的英国凯特王妃12月8日在美国纽约访问时,在育儿经方面得到美国前国务卿希拉里•克林顿的言传身教。

奉天承运,皇帝敕谕,英吉利国王知悉:

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 5

1

~2~ Carolingian dynasty

12月8日晚上,威廉夫妇和希拉里共赴英国驻纽约总领事的寓所,出席一场官方慈善活动。凯特现在怀孕5个月,预产期在2015年4月。已经身为外婆的希拉里热情地跟她介绍起了育儿经。

咨尔国王,远在重洋,倾心向化,特遣使恭赍表章,航海来廷,叩祝万寿,并备进方物,用将忱悃(还带了不少礼物,忠心可嘉)。**朕披阅表文,词意肫恳,具见国王恭顺之诚,深为嘉许。所有赍到表贡之正副使臣,念其奉使远涉,推恩加礼。已令大臣带领瞻觐(让大臣带领他们瞻仰天朝文明,赐予筵宴,叠加赏赉,用示怀柔。其已回珠山之管船官役人等六百余名,虽未来京,朕亦优加赏赐,俾得普沾恩惠,一视同仁(已经回到宁波珠山的管船役使等600多人虽然没有来京,我也一视同仁给与优厚赏赐,让大家都沾沾光)。**

Thank you Mr Speaker.

Canaan

Charles Martel, a mayor of palace, defeated the Muslims in 732, and won himself fame. His son, Pepin the short, established Carolingian dynasty and became the king of Franks in 751. Pepin's son, Charlemagne, reunited and strengthened the kingdom. He is crowned by Pope Leo III as Roman Emperor. His son, Louis the Pious, did a good job keeping the kingdom together. At his death, however, the kingdom was divided into three by his three sons. The imperial title held in the western area became future French Kingdom and eastern future Germany.

希拉里对凯特说,唱歌有益胎教。希拉里还表示,经常在自己女儿切尔西小的时候唱歌给她听,直到有一天切尔西反抗道:“别唱了,别唱了!”

至尔国王表内恳请派一尔国之人住居天朝,照管尔国买卖一节,此则与天朝体制不合,断不可行。向来西洋各国有愿来天朝当差之人,原准其来京,但既来之后,即遵用天朝服色,安置堂内,永远不准复回本国,此系天朝定制,想尔国王亦所知悉。今尔国王欲求派一尔国之人居住京城,既不能若来京当差之西洋人,在京居住不归本国,又不可听其往来,常通信息,实为无益之事。且天朝所管地方至为广远,凡外藩使臣到京,驿馆供给,行止出入,俱有一定体制,从无听其自便之例。今尔国若留人在京,言语不通,服饰殊制,无地可以安置。若必似来京当差之西洋人,令其一律改易服饰,天朝亦不肯强人以所难。设天朝欲差人常驻尔国,亦岂尔国所能遵行(假设我天朝也派人常住你国,恐怕你国也不同意吧?)?况西洋诸国甚多,非止尔一国,若俱似尔国王恳请派人留京,岂能一一听许?是此事断难准行。岂能因尔国王一人之请,以至更张天朝百余年法度(不能因为国王你一人之请,将天朝一百多年的规矩给废了)。

Today the government acts onthe democratic will[民主意愿]澳门微尼斯人娱乐有邻如此,唱歌有益胎教。of the British people. And it acts, too, on the clear and convincing position of this House.

Canaan was the name of a large and

~3~ Capetian dynasty

Former US secretary of state Hillary Clinton told the Duchess of Cambridge bonded over motherhood during their meeting at an official function in New York on Monday night, agreeing that singing is beneficial to babies。

若云尔国王为照料买卖起见,则尔国人在澳门贸易非止一日,原无不加以恩视(若派人来京是为了照顾买卖起见,那你国人在澳门贸易也不是一天两天了,天朝原本对商人就没有另眼相看)。即如从前博尔都噶尔亚、意达哩亚等国屡次遣使来朝,亦曾以照料贸易为请。天朝鉴其悃忱,优加体恤(像以前葡萄牙、意大利几国好几次派人来,也曾经以照顾贸易的名义请我关照。天朝看他们挺真诚的,也不容易,就多加体恤)。凡遇该国等贸易之事,无不照料周备。前次广东商人吴昭平有拖欠洋船价值银两者,俱饬令该管总督由官库内先行动支帑项代为清还,并将拖欠商人重治其罪。想此事尔国亦闻知矣,外国又何必派人留京,为此越例断不可行之请?况留人在京,距澳门贸易处所几及万里,伊亦何能照料耶(何况你们派人驻京,京城距澳门差不多一万里,他怎么能照顾到?)?**若云仰慕天朝,欲其观习教化,则天朝自有天朝礼法,与尔国各不相同。尔国所留之人即能习学,尔国自有风俗制度,亦断不能效法中国,即学会亦属无用**。

A few minutes ago inBrussels[布鲁塞尔],the United Kingdom's Permanent Representative to the EU[英常驻欧盟代表]handed a letter tothe President of the European Council[欧盟理事会主席]on my behalf, confirming the government's decision to invokeArticle 50 of the Treaty on European Union[《里斯本条约》第50条].

prosperous country (at times independent, at others a tributary to Egypt) which

During the Siege of Paris by Viking in 885, Count Odo of Paris/King Odo and his brother King Robert (Their father being Robert the Strong, whom the Robertians are named after.) defended Paris for almost a year before the Charles the Fat come to rescue. Instead of fighting, Charles allowed them to go up Reine and promised a payment of 257kg of silver. This incident caused many criticism towards Charles and respects for Robert and Odo.

Clinton greeted Kate in the lobby of the British consul general’s official residence in New York, and they discussed Kate’s visit to a child developmental centre in Harlem on Monday morning. Kate, who is expecting her second child in April, also met Clinton’s daughter, Chelsea, who recently gave birth to her first child, Charlotte。

天朝扶有四海,惟励精图治,办理政务,奇珍异宝,并不贵重(天朝管辖的地方那么大,我想的是如何励精图治,至于奇珍异宝啥的我并不看得很重)。尔国王此次赍进各物,念其诚心远献,特谕该管衙门收纳(你啊这次进贡了不少礼物,念你特别诚恳大老远献来了,我才特别下旨让有关部门收了)。**其实天朝德威远被,万国来王,种种贵重之物,梯航毕集,无所下有,尔之正使等所亲见(其实天朝德泽四方,威加海内,万国来朝,通过水旱两路给我进贡,咱啥贵重玩意儿都不缺,这些你的使者都是亲眼见过的)。然从不贵奇巧,并无更需尔国制办物件。是尔国王所请派人留京一事,于天朝体制既属不合,而于尔国亦殊觉无益。特此详晰开示,遣令该使等安程回国(我把话都挑明了,现令让你国使者马上安排回国行程)**尔国王惟当善体朕意,益励款诚,永矢恭顺,以保义尔有邦,共享太平之福(国王你应该很好地领会我的意思,对天朝要更加诚心归附,发誓永远对天朝恭顺,天朝的恩泽就能施予你们国家,共建和谐社会)澳门微尼斯人娱乐有邻如此,唱歌有益胎教。。除正副使臣以下各官及通事兵役人等正贯加赏各物件另单赏给外,兹因尔国使臣归国,特颁敕谕,并赐赍尔国王文绮珍物,具如常仪,加赐彩缎罗绮,文玩器具诸珍(除了正副使臣以下一干人等都按等级赏给各种物件,因为你国使者马上就要回国,我又特别下令,除了按常规赏给你的好玩意儿以外,加赐你绫罗绸缎、文玩器具等好玩意儿若干),另有清单。王其祗受,悉朕眷怀(皇恩浩荡,那都是我对你们的关怀)

The Article 50 process is now underway. Andin accordance withthe wishes of the British people, the United Kingdom is leaving the European Union.

corresponds roughly to present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Israel and was

At the death of Charles, Odo and Robert were both elected as kings. So for a while, the Robertians (or Capetians) are both the prince and the king. Then Robert's grandson, Hugh Capet, overtook Carolingians and established Capetian dynasty. Hugh Capet made sure his son was crowned before his own demise, so that the kingdom was not split. At this point onward, monarchy power finally grew strong enough to overcome barons.

“We’re trying to encourage more people to sing … because the research suggests that it’s beneficial,” Clinton told Kate, according to a pool report。

特此敕谕。**——**《清实录》

This is an historic moment from whichthere can be no turning back.Britain is leaving the European Union. We are going to make our own decisions and our own laws. We are going to take control of the things that matter most to us. And we are going to take this opportunity to build a stronger, fairer Britain – a country that our children and grandchildren are proud to call home. That is our ambition and our opportunity. That is what this government is determined to do.

also known as Phoenicia. The origin of the name `Canaan’ for the land comes

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 6

Clinton also told Kate that she would sing to Chelsea when she was a toddler, until there came a point when she told her mother: “No sing, no sing!”

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 7

Mr Speaker, at moments like these –great turning pointsin our national story – the choices we make define the character of our nation. We can choose to say the task ahead is too great. We can choose to turn our face to the past and believe it can't be done. Or we can look forward with optimism and hope – and to believe inthe enduring power[持久力量]of the British spirit.

from various ancient texts (among them the Hebrew Bible) and there is no

图片发自wikipedia

The Duke of Cambridge was originally supposed to attend the event by himself, as royal aides had allotted time in Kate’s itinerary for her to relax, as she is now nearly five months pregnant。

Qianlong’s Letter to George III, 1793

I choose to believe in Britain and that our best dayslie ahead. And I do so because I am confident that we have the vision and the plan to use this moment to build a better Britain. For leaving the European Union presents us with a unique opportunity. It is this generation's chance toshape a brighter futurefor our country. A chance to step back and ask ourselves what kind of country we want to be.

scholarly consensus on precisely where the name originated nor what it was

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 8

But the duchess is fully recovered from the severe sickness that affected her in the first months of the pregnancy, aides said, and she decided she wanted to do as much as possible during the couple’s two-day visit to New York。

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 9

My answer is clear. I want the United Kingdom to emerge from this period of changestronger,fairer, more united and more outward-lookingthan ever before. I want us to be asecure, prosperous, tolerantcountry – amagnet[磁铁;吸铁石]for international talent and a home to the pioneers and innovators who will shape the world ahead.

intended to convey about the land. According to the Bible the land was named

图片发自wikipedia

The conservation reception was co-hosted by the Duke and Duchess’s Royal Foundation and the Clinton Foundation, which is committed tocombatting elephant poaching and stopping the illegal ivory trade。

You, O King, live beyond the confines of many seas. Nevertheless, impelled by your humble desire to partake of the benefits of our civilisation, you have dispatched a mission respectfully bearing your memorial. Your Envoy has crossed the seas and paid his respects at my Court on the anniversary of my birthday. To show your devotion, you have also sent offerings of your country's produce.

I want us to be a trulyGlobal Britain– the best friend and neighbour to our European partners, but a country that reaches beyond the borders of Europe too. A country that goes out into the world to build relationships with old friends and new allies alike.

after a man called Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10). Other theories

~4~ Early Modern France

William has dedicated several events to campaigning around the issue of the illegal trade in wildlife, a cause important to him and the Prince of Wales。

I have perused your memorial: the earnest terms in which it is couched reveal a respectful humility on your part, which is highly praiseworthy. In consideration of the fact that your Ambassador and his deputy have come a long way with your memorial and tribute, I have shown them high favour and have allowed them to be introduced into my presence. To manifest my indulgence, I have entertained them at a banquet and made them numerous gifts. I have also caused presents to be forwarded to the Naval Commander and six hundred of his officers and men, although they did not come to Peking, so that they too may share in my all-­embracing kindness.

And that is why I haveset out a clear and ambitious planfor the negotiations ahead. It is a plan for a new deep and special partnership between Britain and the European Union.A partnership of values. A partnership of interests. A partnership based on co-operation in areas such as security and economic affairs. Anda partnership that works in the best interests of the United Kingdom, the European Union and the wider world.

cite `Canaan’ as derived from the Hurrian language for `purple’ and, as the

The Capetian dynasty survived well into the early modern France, despite Black Death, varies wars including the English-French War or so called "the Hundred Years' War". There were two times House changes however. The first time was when Charles IV the fair died without a male a heir, so the throne was passed on to his cousin Philip VI from House of Valois. The second time was when Henry III was assassinated by Catholic activist for his support to Protestants, which was viewed as a heresy by the traditional Catholics. He died with male heirs, thus the throne was passed to his cousin Henry IV the Great or so called Good King Henry from House of Bourbon. He led the fight against the Catholics, and was assassinated too by a Catholic fanatic.

The duke was back in New York for the event having just returned from his first-ever trip to Washington DC where he dropped by the Oval Office for an informal chat with President Barack Obama. During their meeting, William revealed that the birth of the couple’s first child, Prince George, was so chaotic that he forgot to ask if it was a boy or girl。

As to your entreaty to send one of your nationals to be accredited to my Celestial Court and to be in control of your country's trade with China, this request is contrary to all usage of my dynasty and cannot possibly be entertained. It is true that Europeans, in the service of the dynasty, have been permitted to live at Peking, but they are compelled to adopt Chinese dress, they are strictly confined to their own precincts and are never permitted to return home. You are presumably familiar with our dynastic regulations. Your proposed Envoy to my Court could not be placed in a position similar to that of European officials in Peking who are forbidden to leave China, nor could he, on the other hand, be allowed liberty of movement and the privilege of corresponding with his own country; so that you would gain nothing by his residence in our midst.

Because perhaps now more than ever, the world needs theliberal,democraticvalues of Europe – values that this United Kingdom shares. And that is why, while we are leaving the institutions of the European Union, we are not leaving Europe.We will remain a close friend and ally.We will be a committed partner[忠诚的伙伴]. We will play our part to ensure that Europe is able toproject its valuesanddefend itself from security threats[保护自己免受安全威胁]. And we will do all that we can to help the European Union prosper and succeed.

Greeks knew the Canaanites as `Phoenicians’ (Greek for `purple’ as the

The last king of France was Louis XVI. When the Kingdom was passed on to him, the state was practically bankrupted from wars. He tried to help the financial situation by adding a new land tax, which triggered French Revolution and in turn, his own execution and the end of French royalty.

While in Washington, he spoke at an anti-corruption conference at the World Bank, where he addressed ways to combat the illegal wildlife trade。

Moreover, our Celestial dynasty possesses vast territories, and tribute missions from the dependencies are provided for by the Department for Tributary States, which ministers to their wants and exercises strict control over their movements. It would be quite impossible to leave them to their own devices. Supposing that your Envoy should come to our Court, his language and national dress differ from that of our people, and there would be no place in which to bestow him. It may be suggested that he might imitate the Europeans permanently resident in Peking and adopt the dress and customs of China, but, it has never been our dynasty's wish to force people to do things unseemly and inconvenient. Besides, supposing I sent an Ambassador to reside in your country, how could you possibly make for him the requisite arrangements? Europe consists of many other nations besides your own: if each and all demanded to be represented at our Court, how could we possibly consent? The thing is utterly impracticable. How can our dynasty alter its whole procedure and system of etiquette, established for more than a century, in order to meet your individual views? If it be said that your object is to exercise control over your country's trade, your nationals have had full liberty to trade at Canton for many a year, and have received the greatest consideration at our hands. Missions have been sent by Portugal and Italy, preferring similar requests. The Throne appreciated their sincerity and loaded them with favours, besides authorising measures to facilitate their trade with China. You are no doubt aware that, when my Canton merchant, Wu Chao-ping, who was in debt to foreign ships. I made the Viceroy advance the monies due, out of the provincial treasury, and ordered him to punish the culprit severely. Why then should foreign nations advance this utterly unreasonable request to be represented at my Court? Peking is nearly two thousand miles from Canton, and at such a distance what possible control could any British representative exercise?

So Mr Speaker, in the letter that has been delivered toPresident Tusktoday – copies of which I have placed in the library of the House – I have been clear that the deep and special partnership we seek is inthe best interests ofthe United Kingdom and of the European Union too.

Phoenicians worked, primarily at the city of Tyre, in purple dye and so were

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 10

During the reception in New York, William spoke with supporters of wildlife charities in a room so crowded guests were forced to stand shoulder to shoulder。

If you assert that your reverence for Our Celestial dynasty fills you with a desire to acquire our civilisation, our ceremonies and code of laws differ so completely from your own that, even if your Envoy were able to acquire the rudiments of our civilisation, you could not possibly transplant our manners and customs to your alien soil. Therefore, however adept the Envoy might become, nothing would be gained thereby.

I have been clear that we will work constructively – in a spirit of sincereco-operation– to bring this partnership into being. And I have been clear that we should seek to agree the terms of this future partnership alongside those of our withdrawal, within the next 2 years.

called by the Greeks `purple people’) this explanation is the most probable

澳门微尼斯人娱乐,图片发自wikipedia

He told the guests: “I’m pretty exercised – to put it mildly – about the plight of some of the world’s most iconic species. These species are being illegally butchered in the name of trinkets and medicine。

Swaying the wide world, I have but one aim in view, namely, to maintain a perfect governance and to fulfil the duties of the State: strange and costly objects do not interest me. If I have commanded that the tribute offerings sent by you, O King, are to be accepted, this was solely in consideration for the spirit which prompted you to dispatch them from afar. Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures. This then is my answer to your request to appoint a representative at my Court, a request contrary to our dynastic usage, which would only result in inconvenience to yourself. I have expounded my wishes in detail and have commanded your tribute Envoys to leave in peace on their homeward journey. It behoves you, O King, to respect my sentiments and to display even greater devotion and loyalty in future, so that, by perpetual submission to our Throne, you may secure peace and prosperity for your country hereafter. Besides making gifts (of which I enclose an inventory) to each member of your Mission, I confer upon you, O King, valuable presents in excess of the number usually bestowed on such occasions, including silks and curios-a list of which is likewise enclosed. Do you reverently receive them and take note of my tender goodwill towards you! A special mandate.

I am ambitious for Britain. And the objectives I have set out for these negotiations remain. We will deliver certainty wherever possible so that business, the public sector and everybody else has as much clarity as we can provide as we move through the process. It is why, tomorrow, we will publish aWhite Paperconfirming our plans to convert the ‘acquis’ into British law, so that everyone will know where they stand.

but, by no means, provable.

澳门微尼斯人娱乐 11

“It’s easy to blame others for the problem – demand in south-east Asia, not enough protection on the ground, and so on. But, if I may say, we could start with looking closer to home. Our own nations still have thriving black markets in these products, and we have to raise the game at home as well as abroad。

You, O King, from afar have yearned after the blessings of our civilisation, and in your eagerness to come into touch with our converting influence have sent an Embassy across the sea bearing a memorial. I have already taken note of your respectful spirit of submission, have treated your mission with extreme favour and loaded it with gifts, besides issuing a mandate to you, O King, and honouring you with the bestowal of valuable presents. Thus has my indulgence been manifested.

And it is why I have been clear that the government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a vote in bothHouses of Parliamentbefore itcomes into force. We will take control of our own laws and bring an end to thejurisdiction[1]of the European Court of Justice in Britain. Leaving the European Union will mean that our laws will be made inWestminster,Edinburgh,CardiffandBelfast. And those laws will be interpreted by judges not inLuxembourg, but in courts across this country.

2

图片发自wikipedia

“But it’s not all doom and gloom. You’re the lights at the end of the tunnel. What all of us in this room represent, and tens of thousands of people out there, is solid purpose – a determination not to let our generation be the one that let this catastrophe occur。”

Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal is not consistent with our dynastic usage and cannot be entertained. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's barbarian merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside barbarians in exchange for our own produce. But as the tea, silk and porcelain which the Celestial Empire produces, are absolute necessities to European nations and to yourselves, we have permitted, as a signal mark of favour, that foreign hongs [merchant firms] should be established at Canton, so that your wants might be supplied and your country thus participate in our beneficence. But your Ambassador has now put forward new requests which completely fail to recognise the Throne's principle to "treat strangers from afar with indulgence," and to exercise a pacifying control over barbarian tribes, the world over. Moreover, our dynasty, swaying the myriad races of the globe, extends the same benevolence towards all. Your England is not the only nation trading at Canton. If other nations, following your bad example, wrongfully importune my ear with further impossible requests, how will it be possible for me to treat them with easy indulgence? Nevertheless, I do not forget the lonely remoteness of your island, cut off from the world by intervening wastes of sea, nor do I overlook your excusable ignorance of the usages of our Celestial Empire. I have consequently commanded my Ministers to enlighten your Ambassador on the subject, and have ordered the departure of the mission. But I have doubts that, after your Envoy's return he may fail to acquaint you with my view in detail or that he may be lacking in lucidity, so that I shall now proceed . . . to issue my mandate on each question separately. In this way you will, I trust, comprehend my meaning....

[1]jurisdiction[.dʒʊərɪs'dɪkʃ(ə)n]

Attica

~5~ Napoleonic Period

On a lighter note, William was also heard telling Chelsea Clinton, “We’re going to the Empire State Building tomorrow. I’m really looking forward to that, it’s going to be great fun。”

(3) Your request for a small island near Chusan, where your merchants may reside and goods be warehoused, arises from your desire to develop trade. As there are neither foreign hongs nor interpreters in or near Chusan, where none of your ships have ever called, such an island would be utterly useless for your purposes. Every inch of the territory of our Empire is marked on the map and the strictest vigilance is exercised over it all: even tiny islets and far­lying sand­banks are clearly defined as part of the provinces to which they belong. Consider, moreover, that England is not the only barbarian land which wishes to establish . . . trade with our Empire: supposing that other nations were all to imitate your evil example and beseech me to present them each and all with a site for trading purposes, how could I possibly comply? This also is a flagrant infringement of the usage of my Empire and cannot possibly be entertained.

the authority of a court or official organization to make decisions and judgments 司法权;管辖权;审判权

Attica is a triangular peninsula juttinginto the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the10 mi (16 km) long Cithaeron mountain range. To the west, it is bordered by thesea and the canal of Corinth. The Saronic Gulf lies to the south, and theisland of Euboea lies off the north and the eastern coasts. Mountains separatethe peninsula into the plains of Pedias, Mesogaia, and Thriasion. The mountainsof Attica are the Hymettus, the eastern portion of the Geraneia, the Parnitha(the highest mountain of Attica), the Aigaleo and the Penteli. Fourmountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettus (clockwise from thesouthwest)—delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens-Piraeus metroplex nowspreads. The plain of Mesogaía, now called Mesógeia, lies to the east of MountHymettus and is bound to the north by the foothills of Mount Penteli, to theeast by the Euboean Gulf and Mount Myrrhinous (modern Merenta), and to thesouth by the mountains of Laurium (modern Lavrio). Athens' water reservoir,Lake Marathon, is an artificial lake created by damming in 1920. Pine and firforests cover the area around Parnitha. Hymettus, Penteli, Myrrhinous andLaurium are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered byshrubbery.

After sometime of Chaos, a Republican government is established, but so was the European military coalition against France. As the war broke out, a young general stood out. He was Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1799, he held a coup and became the first Consul of the Republic, then further in 1804 a Emperor of First French Empire. He had won many battles in his life, but in 1813 he was heavily outnumbered by the Allied coalition and lost in the Six Days Campaign. He was exiled to Elba in 1814. He tried ones more by seize over France in the Hundred Days, but was once again defeated at the Battle of Wateloo and exiled.

(4) The next request, for a small site in the vicinity of Canton city, where your barbarian merchants may lodge or, alternatively, that there be no longer any restrictions over their movements at Aomen, has arisen from the following causes. Hitherto, the barbarian merchants of Europe have had a definite locality assigned to them at Aomen for residence and trade, and have been forbidden to encroach an inch beyond the limits assigned to that locality.... If these restrictions were withdrawn, friction would inevitably occur between the Chinese and your barbarian subjects, and the results would militate against the benevolent regard that I feel towards you. From every point of view, therefore, it is best that the regulations now in force should continue unchanged....

The court has no jurisdiction in/over cases of this kind.

The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica.

~6~ Modern France

(7) Regarding your nation's worship of the Lord of Heaven, it is the same religion as that of other European nations. Ever since the beginning of history, sage Emperors and wise rulers have bestowed on China a moral system and inculcated a code, which from time immemorial has been religiously observed by the myriads of my subjects. There has been no hankering after heterodox doctrines. Even the European (missionary) officials in my capital are forbidden to hold intercourse with Chinese subjects; they are restricted within the limits of their appointed residences, and may not go about propagating their religion. The distinction between Chinese and barbarian is most strict, and your Ambassador's request that barbarians shall be given full liberty to disseminate their religion is utterly unreasonable.

该法庭无权审判此类案件。

According to Plato, Attica's ancient

After Napoleon's fall, France was continually switching between Republic and Empire. Until 1958, Charles de Gaulle second time in power and established the Fifty Republic with himself being the head of the government.

It may be, O King, that the above proposals have been wantonly made by your Ambassador on his own responsibility, or peradventure you yourself are ignorant of our dynastic regulations and had no intention of transgressing them when you expressed these wild ideas and hopes.... If, after the receipt of this explicit decree, you lightly give ear to the representations of your subordinates and allow your barbarian merchants to proceed to Chêkiang and Tientsin, with the object of landing and trading there, the ordinances of my Celestial Empire are strict in the extreme, and the local officials, both civil and military, are bound reverently to obey the law of the land. Should your vessels touch the shore, your merchants will assuredly never be permitted to land or to reside there, but will be subject to instant expulsion. In that event your barbarian merchants will have had a long journey for nothing. Do not say that you were not warned in due time! Tremblingly obey and show no negligence! A special mandate!

We will strengthen the Union of the 4 nations thatcompriseour United Kingdom. We will negotiate as one United Kingdom, taking account of the specific interests of every nation and region of the UK and when it comes to the powers that we will take back from Europe, we will consult fully on which powers shouldreside inWestminster and which should be passed on tothe devolved administrations.

boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, and, toward the continent, they extended

From Backhouse, E. and J. O. P. Bland, Annals and Memoirs of the Court of Peking. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1914. pp. 322-­331.

But Mr Speaker, no decisions currently taken by the devolved administrations will be removed from them. And it is the expectation of the government that the devolved administrations inScotland,WalesandNorthern Irelandwill see a significant increase in theirdecision-making poweras a result of this process.

as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down

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We want to maintain the common travel area withthe Republic of Ireland. There should be no return to the borders of the past. We will control immigration so that we continue to attract the brightest and the best to work or study in Britain, but manage the process properly so that our immigration system serves the national interest.

toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right and by the river

责任编辑:

We seek to guarantee the rights ofEU citizens[欧盟公民]who are already living in Britain, and the rights ofBritish nationals[英国国民]in other member states as early as we can. That is set out very clearly in the letter as an early priority for the talks ahead. We will ensure that workers' rights are fully protected and maintained.Indeed, under my leadership,not only will the government protect the rights of workers, we will build on them.

Asopus on the left.

We will pursue aboldandambitiousfree trade agreement with the European Union that allows for the freest possible trade in goods and services between Britain and the EU's member states; that gives British companiesthe maximum freedomto trade with and operate within European markets; and that lets European businesses do the same in Britain.

3

Because European leaders have said many times that we cannot ‘cherry pick[2]’ and remain members of the single market without accepting the 4 freedoms that are indivisible. We respect that position. And as accepting those freedomsis incompatible with[和...不相容的]the democratically expressed will of the British people, we will no longer be members of the single market.

Western Asia

[2]cherry pick:to pick only the best people or things from a group, so that only people or things that are less good remain

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asiaor Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia. The concept is inlimited use, as it significantly overlaps with the Middle East (or Near East),the main difference being the exclusion of Egypt (which would be counted aspart of North Africa). The term is sometimes used for the purposes of groupingcountries in statistics.

The new schools were accused ofcherry-pickingthe best students in the area.

The total population of Western Asia is anestimated 300 million as of 2015.

We are going to make sure that we can*strike**[3]trade agreementswith countries from outside the European Union too. Because important though our trade with the EU is and will remain, it is clear that the UK needs to increase significantly its trade with the fastest growing export markets in the world.*

In an unrelated context, the term is alsoused in ancient history and archaeology to divide the Fertile Crescent into the"Asiatic" or "Western Asian" cultures as opposed to ancientEgypt.

[3]strike:to reach or make an agreement 达成,制定(协议)

As a geographic concept, "WesternAsia" includes the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Arabian peninsula, Anatolia,Iran, Armenian Highlands and South Caucasus. The Sinai Peninsula belongs toWestern Asia, making Egypt a transcontinental country.

Do you think the government should try tostrike a dealwith the terrorists?

Although, the term "Western Asia"is mostly used as a convenient division of contemporary sovereign states into amanageable number of world regions for statistical purposes; it is sometimesused instead of the more geopolitical term "Middle East", for exampleby the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) statistics office or Canada'sgovernment.[1]

你认为政府应该尝试与恐怖分子达成协议吗?

The term is used pragmatically and has no

We hope to continue to collaborate with our European partners in the areas ofscience, education, research and technology, so that the UK is one of the best places for science and innovation. We seek continued co-operation with our European partners in important areas such ascrime, terrorism and foreign affairs.

"correct" or generally agreed-upon definition. The government of

And it is our aim to deliver asmoothandorderlyBrexit – reaching an agreement about our future partnership by the time the 2-year Article 50 process has concluded, then moving intoa phased process[阶段性进程/过程]of implementation in which Britain, the EU institutions and member states prepare for the new arrangements that will exist between us.

Canada and also, for example, the National Geographic Style Manual only

Mr Speaker, we understand that there will beconsequencesfor the UK of leaving the EU. We know that we will lose influenceover the rules that affect the European economy. We know that UK companies that trade with the EU will have toalign with[与……结盟;与…一致]rules agreed by institutions of which we are no longer a part, just as we do in other overseas markets. We accept that.

includes the nations of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lebanon,

However, we approach these talksconstructively,respectfully, andin a spirit of sincere co-operation. For it is in the interests of both the United Kingdom and the European Union that we should use this process to deliver our objectives in a fair and orderly manner. It is in the interests of both the United Kingdom and the European Union that there should beas little disruption as possible. And it is in the interests of both the United Kingdom and the European Union that Europe should remain strong, prosperous and capable of*projecting**its values*in the world.

Syria, Qatar, Kuwait, Jordan, Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, Oman, and Yemen

At a time when the growth of global trade is slowing and there are signs thatprotectionistinstinctsare on the rise in many parts of the world, Europe has a responsibility to stand up for free trade in the interests of all our citizens.

as part of West Asia, excluding Israel and West Bank/Gaza.[2] As a further

With Europe's security morefragiletoday than at any time since the end ofthe Cold War, weakening our co-operation and failing to stand up for European values would be a costly mistake.

example, Maddison, The World Economy: Historical Statistics (2003) includes

Our vote to leave the EU wasno rejection ofthe values thatwe share as fellow Europeans. As a European country, we will continue to play our part in promoting and supporting those values – during the negotiations and once they are done.

Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi

We will continue to bereliablepartners, willing allies and close friends. We want to continue to buy goods and services from the EU, and sell them ours. We want to trade with them as freely as possible, and work with one another to make sure we are allsafer, moresecureand moreprosperousthrough continued friendship.

Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE, Yemen, and West Bank/Gaza.[3] The United Nations

Indeed, in an increasingly unstable world, we must continue toforge the closest possible security co-operationto keep our people safe. We face the same global threats fromterrorismandextremism[极端主义]. That message was only reinforced by theabhorrent[4]attack onWestminster Bridge[威斯敏斯特桥]and this place last week.

Industrial Organization includes Azerbaijan, Iran, Armenia, Oman, Yemen,

[4]abhorrent[əb'hɒrənt]

Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait,

morally very bad 令人憎恶的;使人厌恶的;可恶的

Saudi Arabia, and Jordan when listing the nations of the West Asia region, and

an abhorrent crime

leaves Turkey and Georgia out.[4] The UNSD leaves out Iran but includes all

令人唾弃的罪行

other commonly West Asian listed nations.

So there should be no reason why we should not agree a new deep and special partnership between the UK and the EU that works for us all.

4

Mr Speaker, I know that this is a day of celebration for someand disappointment for others. Thereferendum[公投]last June was divisive at times. Not everyone shared the same point of view, or voted in the same way. The arguments on both side werepassionate.

Mesopotamia

But, Mr Speaker, when I sit around the negotiating table in the months ahead, I will represent every person in the whole United Kingdom – young and old, rich and poor, city, town, country and all the villages andhamlets[小村庄]in between.

Widely considered to be one of the cradlesof civilization by the Western world, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer andthe Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory ofmodern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian andNeo-Babylonian Empires.

And yes, thoseEU nationalswho have made this country their home and it is myfierce determinationto get the right deal for every single person in this country. For as we face the opportunities ahead of us on thismomentous[重大的,重要的]journey, our shared values, interests and ambitions can – and must – bring us together.

The Sumerians and Akkadians (includingAssyrians and Babylonians) dominated Mesopotamia from the beginning of writtenhistory (c. 3100 BC) to the fall of Babylon in 539 BC, when it was conquered bythe Achaemenid Empire. It fell to Alexander the Great in 332 BC, and after hisdeath, it became part of the Greek Seleucid Empire.

We all want to see a Britain that isstrongerthan it is today. We all want a country that is fairer so that everyone has the chance to succeed. We all want a nation that is safe and secure for our children and grandchildren. We all want to live ina truly Global Britainthat gets out and builds relationships with old friends and new allies around the world.

Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under thecontrol of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia became a battleground between theRomans and Parthians, with western parts of Mesopotamia coming under ephemeralRoman control. In AD 226, eastern part of it fell to the Sassanid Persians.Division of Mesopotamia between Roman (Byzantine from AD 395) and SassanidEmpires lasted until the 7th century Muslim conquest of Persia of the SasanianEmpire and Muslim conquest of the Levant from Byzantines. A number of primarilyneo-Assyrian and Christian native Mesopotamian states existed between the 1stcentury BC and 3rd century AD, including Adiabene, Osroene, and Hatra.

These are the ambitions of thisgovernment's Plan for Britain. Ambitions that unite us, so that we are no longer defined by the vote we cast, but by our determination to make a success of the result.

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest

We are one great union of people and nations with a proud history and a bright future. And now that the decision to leave has been made – and the process is underway – it is time to come together. For this great national moment needs a great national effort. An effort to shape a stronger future for Britain.

developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC.[citation

So let us do so together. Let us come together and work together. Let us together choose to believe in Britain with optimism and hope. For if we do, we can make the most of the opportunities ahead. We can together make a success of this moment. And we can together build astronger,fairer,betterBritain – a Britain our children and grandchildren are proud to call home.

needed] It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most

important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel,

the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script,

mathematics, astronomy and agriculture.

5

Hittites

The Hittites (/ˈhɪtaɪts/) were an AncientAnatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-centralAnatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14thcentury BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included mostof Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC the Hittite Empire came into conflictwith the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitannifor control of the Near East. The Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominantpower and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked byPhrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Agecollapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent"Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8thcentury BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

The Hittite language was a distinct memberof the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, and along withthe related Luwian language, is the oldest historically attested Indo-Europeanlanguage.[2] They referred to their native land as Hatti. The conventional name"Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the BiblicalHittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hatti fortheir core territory, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians,an earlier people who inhabited the same region (until the beginning of the 2ndmillennium BC) and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic which wasprobably a language isolate but may have been a Northwest Caucasianlanguage.[3]

During the 1920s, interest in the Hittitesincreased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted theattention of archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç, leading tothe decipherment of Hittite hieroglyphs. During this period, the new field ofHittitology also influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-ownedEtibank ("Hittite bank"),[4] and the foundation of the Museum ofAnatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittitecapital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite artifacts inthe world.

The history of the Hittite civilization is

known mostly from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, and from

diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria,

Babylonia, Egypt and the Middle East, the decipherment of which was also a key

event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made

successful use of chariots,[5] and although belonging to the Bronze Age, the

Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of

iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; at this time, gifts from

the "man of Burushanda" of an iron throne and an iron sceptre to the

Kaneshite king Anitta were recorded in the Anitta text inscription.

6

Babylonia

Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speakingstate and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-dayIraq). A small Amorite-ruled state emerged in 1894 BC, which contained at thistime the minor city of Babylon.[1] Babylon greatly expanded during the reign ofHammurabi in the first half of the 18th century BC, becoming a major capitalcity. During the reign of Hammurabi and afterwards, Babylonia was called MātAkkadī "the country of Akkad" in the Akkadian language.[2][3] It wasoften involved in rivalry with its older fellow Akkadian-speaking state ofAssyria in northern Mesopotamia. Babylonia briefly became the major power inthe region after Hammurabi (fl. c. 1792 – 1752 BC middle chronology, or c. 1696– 1654 BC, short chronology) created a short-lived empire, succeeding theearlier Akkadian Empire, Third Dynasty of Ur, and Old Assyrian Empire; however,the Babylonian empire rapidly fell apart after the death of Hammurabi.

The Babylonian state, like Assyria to thenorth, retained the written Akkadian language for official use (the language ofits native populace), despite its Northwest Semitic-speaking Amorite foundersand Kassite successors, who spoke a language isolate. It retained the Sumerianlanguage for religious use (as did Assyria), but by the time Babylon wasfounded, this was no longer a spoken language, having been wholly subsumed byAkkadian. The earlier Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role inBabylonian and Assyrian culture, and the region would remain an importantcultural center, even under protracted periods of outside rule.

The earliest mention of the city of Babylon

can be found in a clay tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad (2334–2279 BC),

dating back to the 23rd century BC. Babylon was merely a religious and cultural

centre at this point and neither an independent state nor a large city; like

the rest of Mesopotamia, it was subject to the Akkadian Empire which united all

the Akkadian and Sumerian speakers under one rule. After the collapse of the Akkadian

empire, the south Mesopotamian region was dominated by the Gutian people for a

few decades before the rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur, which, apart from

northern Assyria, encompassed the whole of Mesopotamia, including the city of

Babylon.

7

Asiatic

Asiatic refers to something related toAsia.

Asiatic may also refer to:

Asiatic style, a term in ancient stylisticcriticism associated with Greek writers of Asia Minor

In the context of Ancient Egypt, Asiatic is

used to mean beyond the borders of Egypt and the continent of Africa to the

east, but only of western Asia, or of what may now be considered the Middle

East.

8

Jerusalem

is a city located on a plateau in theJudaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. One of the oldestcities in the world, Jerusalem was named as "Urusalima" on ancientMesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem"after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity inJerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th centurythe city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdomof Judah.[5] It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamicreligions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

Israelis and Palestinians both claimJerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primarygovernmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimatelyforesees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widelyrecognized internationally.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been

destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured

and recaptured 44 times.[6] The part of Jerusalem called the City of David was

settled in the 4th millennium BCE.[7] In 1538, walls were built around

Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old

City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the

early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.[8]

The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World

Heritage in Danger.[9] Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries.

9

Battle of Megiddo

This Battle of Megiddo is recorded ashaving taken place in 609 BC when Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt lead his army toCarchemish (northern Syria) to join with his allies, the fading Neo-AssyrianEmpire, against the surging Neo-Babylonian Empire. This required passingthrough territory controlled by the Kingdom of Judah. Judaean King Josiahrefused to let the Egyptians pass, perhaps thinking that the Assyrians andEgyptians were weakened by the death of the pharaoh Psamtik I only a yearearlier (610 BCE) and also attempting to help the Babylonians.[1] The Judaeanforces battled the Egyptians at Megiddo, resulting in Josiah's death and hisKingdom becoming a vassal state of Egypt. The battle is recorded in the Bible,the Greek 1 Esdras, and the writings of Josephus.

While Necho II gained control of the

Kingdom of Judah, the combined Assyrian-Egyptian forces failed to defeat the

Babylonians, after which Assyria largely ceased to exist as an independent

state

10

Euphrates

The Euphrates (Listeni/juːˈfreɪtiːz/;

Sumerian:

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